Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Famous People In 1999 Ricky MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s debut album hit number one on the Billboard Top 100 charts and also surpassed his other CD sales by selling almost 661,000 copies of his first English language album. That same year two major publishers printed biographies on him. (Griffiths, john 1of 5) Since his Grammy debut in 1999 he seems to have found success in every aspect of his career except in his personal life. Even with all the success he has reaped he unfortunately still suffers from the inability to keep a lasting partner in his life. This problem is seen through interpreting his music, where he expresses his loneliness and feelings about losing love. His loneliness has occurred from putting his career in front of his personal life due to his earliest obsession with having the full attention of his both his separated parents. His need for attention did not start at the beginning of the divorce though, in contrary he received even more attention then normal because both his parents wanted to see him be as happy as possible. With his parents not communicating to each other regularly he was able to get things from one parent that the other previously disapproved of. (Furman 5-7) One of the things he convinced his parents to let him do was acting. While watching other actors on TV he wished that he would one day do the same. He decided at the age of five that he wanted to entertain and his father supported him all the way. For his Father, seeing him perform in school plays and sing in his church choir only proved that letting his son act was the most reasonable thing to do. (Celebrating Hispanic Culture 1 of 4) Ã¢â¬Å"For Ricky being on-stage was synonymous with being loved. It was like having an even bigger family to adore and admire his every move and gesture.Ã¢â¬ (Furman 7) But soon RickyÃ¢â¬â¢s new and improved Ã¢â¬Å"biggerÃ¢â¬ family would become a littler bit smaller. A short while after his acting pursuit began both his parents remarried and five new stepbrothers and sisters followed. Since losing most of his parents full attention he dreamt day and night about being a huge star so that, once again, he could just not get the attention of his parents but also of the adoring public all around the world. (Furman 8-9) He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know that the public adoration was just around the corner though.
Monday, January 13, 2020
In recent history it has been evident that some of the most popularize sports in America have been dominated and overran by African American and other minority athletes. In turn when the coaching and management positions in sports are analyzed and broken down, the number of minority coaches and managers in sport are almost non-existent and have been since those sports organization became established. In 2006 Blacks made up about 14% of the population, 12% of all college enrollments, and nearly 24% of all collegiate scholarship athletes.In some major sports, such as basketball and football, blacks make up a great percentage of athletes participating. In 2005 over 55% of all collegiate athletes on football scholarships were Blacks and about 62% of all collegiate athletes on basketball scholarships were Black and this is out of the NCAAÃ¢â¬â¢s 328 Division I schools. Despite the large number of Black representing the athletes in collegiate sport, the percentage of African Americans in coaching and administrative position were very small.In 2005 roughly 7% of all head coaches of menÃ¢â¬â¢s teams at the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s largest universities were black and only 6. 5% in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s collegiate sports. The numbers are even smaller in the big-time revenue generating sports such as basketball and football. Just to give a breakdown of these percentages, there were only 3 head football coaches at the NCAAÃ¢â¬â¢s 119 D I-A schools. What tends to help the racial lines seen been athletes on the field/court of play and the people who are in the position of power.One thing that helps alleviate this barrier is the number of minority assistant coaches in position. The percentage of minority assistant coaches in collegiate sports are far greater that of head coaches in power. It seems that itÃ¢â¬â¢s expected to for a white man to be in power and for blacks and other minorities to be in assistant roles that itÃ¢â¬â¢s become normal in sports and unquestioned. The authori ty of white head coaches is often legitimized through the eyes of black athletes when its seen that black assistant are taking orders from a white coach.This is an issue that has become to be expected in both collegiate and professional sports (Anonymous, 36-37). It may not be thought about much but there are some racial games that are played. Although the Rooney Rule has at least given minority head coaches a chance to potentially get hired because they actually get a chance to get an interview, many still see it as just a rule put into place to make it seem like everything is equal and to save face from scrutiny about racial issues in sport. In 2003, Mike Millen the president of the Detroit Lions was fined for not interviewing a minority.He was not fined for intentionally not interviewing minority coaches, he actually contacted five different minority coaches and each of them turned the request for an interview down. Each of them felt like the job was already Steve Mariucci and fe lt like they were just being interviewed just so that the Detroit Lions could fill their obligation to interview a minority coach. The problem not only lies with collegiate and professional sports organizations and the issue of not interviewing and hiring more minority coaches and managers but also stems from this minorities feeling that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a fair shot at the position.Some minorities looking for a head coaching position also have negative feelings towards getting called up for an interview just because of rule that was put into place that forces teams to do this. Some feel like if the Rooney Rule wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t in place that general managers wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t go out of there to try and search for minority coaches to interview like that have to do now. A subconscious bias is happening within these organizations because the managers are taking the notion that weÃ¢â¬â¢re giving Ã¢â¬Å"themÃ¢â¬ a Ã¢â¬Å"fairÃ¢â¬ chance at the position because we are given them a n interview just like everyone else.In reality its being done to help shift focus away from the lack of diversity and make it seem that things are much better in that department and that organizations are treating the issue with an open mind (Nordlinger, J. , 25-26). On the issue of the lack of minority representation in the administration side of sport lacks even more than minority coaches. The hiring of administrators of color has been extremely limited and still continues to be today. In 1999 NCAA reported a combined percentage of minority administrators in position is a mere 10%, which includes all areas of the administrator sector in NCAA D-I sports.This statistic includes both women and men which shows that representation of minorities have been scarce both on and off the field in NCAA D-I sports. The biggest concern with the lack of minorities in top leadership positions in collegiate sports starts with top-level managers themselves such as college presidents, athletic direct ors, and conference commissioners not aggressively pursuing minorities for leadership roles. This not happening will continue to bring up the same issues about underrepresentation in sport period.Putting more minorities in position will lead to more and more minorities potentially getting opportunities for interviews through the passing of knowledge from other minorities alike. The NCAA is taking steps to trying to bridge the gap by planning to open a Minority Institute to develop minorities and give them the necessary skills needed to compete with their white counterparts (Greenlee, 1). I feel that both professional and collegiate sports can do a little more than what is being done to bring more diversity to its organizations and teams within its governing body.The Rooney Rule is a start for sports as a whole period to bring in more minorities, although the rule is only geared toward the NFL it kind of opens the eyes of other leagues to potentially implement a rule or some differen t policies that give minorities an equal shot of obtaining the same position as whites. I believe that clinics or some programs should be set up to help minority coaches and minorities looking to get into the administration side of sport, gain knowledge and skills to help make them more successful as leaders.In turn this could make organization better as a whole because different ideas and not just the same mindset of how things should and could be done within the organization. General Managers and other administrators would get a chance to better interact with a person of minority working within an organization and would be able to gain knowledge from them as well. Depending on how well the minority coach or administrator does and the type of knowledge the person possesses could really open of the eyes of his/her white colleagues and help others get their foot in the door.Ever since minorities have gotten a chance to take on roles such as head coaching positions and in different ma nagement position they have been seen as unsuccessful. I believe that this is because they have had limited opportunities and have not always come into the best of situations with teams that have hired them. Ultimately whites are seen as most successful because they are the majority they have more people in position that are and have succeeded but also more that have ailed. Their successes have been highlighted over their failures and it seems like minority coaches and minorities in top-level management positions failures have been highlighted over their successes. Although the number of minorities hired for coaching and management positions are very limited they will have to be successful in order for them to be legitimatized and given fair shots at getting major positions within sport organizations and leagues.Until minorities represent a percentage that is seen as acceptable in relation the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population in America is then where the issue of the lack of diversity in major level positions in sport die out.Works Cited Anonymous, . (2006/2007). Black Teams, White Coaches: Racial Inequality in Coaching of College Sports. Journal of Black in Higher Education, 1(54), 36-37. Greenlee,. (2000). NCAA Report Finds Little Diversity In Sports Administration. Black Issues in Higher Education, 1. Nordlinger, J. (2003). Color in Coaching. National Review, 55(16), 25-26. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Charles Christopher Parker Jr. was born on August 29, 1920 in Kansas City, Kansas to Charles and Addie Parker. Charlie led a lonely childhood which resulted from his parents separation in 1927 when Charlie was just 7 years old. His father was never around much following the separation. Their house however was just a short walk from Kansas Citys entertainment district which attracted Charlie while growing up. This was to be where Charlie would find his place in the world. While Charlies mother was working, he would walk around Kansas City listening to jazz behind the clubs. Parker would sit around all night listening to his idol Lester Young perform along with the Count Bassie band. It was here that Charlie was developing hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To support himself Charlie washed dishes at a local food joint, where he met Buddy Fleet, who was the one who tutored Charlie in playing the saxophone. Charlie would then return to Kansas City due to the death of his father and stayed home for about a half a year while playing in a small band there. Then in late 1939 Charlie joined back up with McShann and moved back to Harlem, where Charlie would meet Dizzie Gillespie. Gillespie would join Charlie and would start to work together and develop a new form of jazz. While Charlie was experimenting with a number of different chords in a jam session he discovered a new approach to improvisation. These new chord progressions and the ever emerging so unds of Harlem, bebop was born. Parker would eventually need a break from New York City and decided to travel to California where he would travel for a couple years. It was during this trip to the west coast that he would get heavier in to drugs and alcohol, specifically heroin which he used as his inspiration. It was while in Los Angeles performing that Charlie would suffer a nervous breakdown, for which he was confined to a hospital bed. He was released in 1947 and returned to New York, where he formed a quintet with Miles Davis and others. Parker would once again tire of New York City and head to Europe for a couple of years, where he would encounter a lot of devoted fans and he also did numerous recordings. In CharliesShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesalternatives. 58. I help the parties find areas on which they agree. In situations where I have an opportunity to engage people in accomplishing work: ______ ______ ______ ______ 59. I help people feel competent in their work by recognizing and celebrating their small successes. 60. I provide regular feedback and needed support. 61. I try to provide all the information that people need to accomplish their tasks. 62. I highlight the important impact that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s work will have. When delegatingRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesCollege Christa Washington, Saint AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s College Jim Westerman, Appalachian State University William J. White, Northwestern University David Whitlock, Southwest Baptist University Dan Wiljanen, Grand Valley State University Dean Williamson, Brewton-Parker College Hilda Williamson, Hampton University Alice Wilson, Cedar Crest College Barry Wisdom, Southeast Missouri State University Craig Wishart, Fayetteville State University Laura Wolfe, Louisiana State University Melody Wollan, Eastern Illinois University
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Ideas in the subject of Physics are never absolute; it is a forever-changing topic. We think we have discovered everything there is to know about it, and then we find out something new that changes everything. That is one of the reasons physics is so interesting to learn about Ã¢â¬â there will always be something new. There are many very important discoveries in Physics. This paper will describe some of the discoveries. These discoveries are prevalent throughout history and in our daily lives. One of the oldest, but nonetheless important, discoveries in physics is The Law of Falling Bodies. Discovered by Galileo Galilei, it remains a fundamental part of physics even today. It states that all objects that are falling, no matter mass, height,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If they were not important then people would not have heard so much about them. Isaac Newton was a mathematician and physicist that discovered the three laws of motion. The laws are as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"1) An object in motion remains in motion unless an external force is applied to it. 2) The relationship between an objects mass (m), its acceleration (a) and the applied force (F) is F = ma. 3) For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.Ã¢â¬ With these three laws, Newton created the basis for modern day engineering. These laws helped many other physicists to discover meaningful things. NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s first law of motion is usually referred to as the law of inertia. Inertia is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the property of matter by which it retains its state of rest or its velocity along a straight line so long as it is notShow MoreRelatedThe History of Physics Essay1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe History of Physics In order to attempt to trace the origins of the modern science that we now refer to as Ã¢â¬Å"physics,Ã¢â¬ we must begin with the origin of the term itself. Taken from the Greek word Ã¢â¬Å"physikaÃ¢â¬ meaning growth or nature, physics most obviously began as the intelligent study of the human environment (Webster 393). From superstition and religious practices, the foundation of all other sciences was born. These concepts have subsequently grown into what we regardRead MoreEssay about Enrico Fermi and the Development of the Atomic Bomb1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnrico Fermi and the Development of the Atomic Bomb The 20th century saw many important discoveries which impacted people worldwide. Great discoveries were made in the realm of science and technology which lead to the atomic age. One of the leading pioneers in the area of physics was Enrico Fermi. Without his contributions, the atomic bomb may not have been developed or would have possibly been postponed. Enrico Fermi was born into a family who had enough money to live comfortably. FermiRead MoreAlbert Einstein s Theory Of Relativity And The Father Of The Atomic Age1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout his career, he developed many names for himself. Most notably, he was known as the father of relativity and the father of the atomic age. These two titles alone speak volumes about his achievements and contributions to science, but it is important to examine how he got his name in the history books, and how he made such a big name for himself in his seventy six years of life. Most people know him for his theory of relativity, and the famous formula: E=mc2, but his contributions to scienceRead MorePhysics 11373 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnotable discoveries were in the field of astronomy, we cannot label him simply as an astronomer. He authored many important works including, Sidereal Messenger (also known as Starry Messenger), but unfortunately, due to the power of the Catholic church in h is native Italy, his work in astronomy was widely rejected by his countrymen. 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Einstein proved this by figuring out that the speed of light was constant, and in order for ether to be the medium light waves travel through, the speed of light would change depending on the observer. This discovery was one piece of the Specific Theory of Relativity. The nature and process of science are a collection of things, ideas, and guidelines. Ã¢â¬Å"The purpose of science is to learn about and understand our universe more completelyÃ¢â¬ (Science works in specificRead MoreJ.J. Thomson1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJ.J. Thomson Joseph John Thomson was born in Manchester, England in 1856. Thomson was indeed a good scientist, but he did not know that at first. He attended college at a time when science was finally getting recognized as an important subject (Morgan). Thomsons road to becoming a scientist was not paved for him from the start, as his father had other plans for him. Joseph was intended to become an engineer, but when the time came to pay for his studies, his family could not make ends meet. InsteadRead More Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen Essay1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThey had no children, but in 1887 they adopted a daughter, Josephine Bertha Ludwig, who was the daughter of AnnaÃâ¢s only brother. RÃ ¡ntgen spent most of his years researching physics, thermology, mechanics, and electricity. Although he made some great discoveries in all these fields, his greatest invention was the discovery of a short-wave ray in 1895, which we know now as X-rays. Some other things he studied were the heats of gasses and fluids, the characteristics of quartz, the modification ofRead MoreCan Science Prove the Creation of the Universe? Essay1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessomeone could tell you the answer to how it all began, how our world was created, why we exist, would you want to know? Modern Science has made some pretty impressive discoveries about our universe. As stated by George Smoot, a cosmologist at the University of California at Berkeley and winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in physics, Ã¢â¬Å"I think we all know where we came from and how we fit into the world, but some of us need to know how it all works in great detail.Ã¢â¬ While some people believe testingRead MoreEssay on Erwin SchrÃ ¶dingers Valuable Contributions1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesErwin SchrÃ ¶dinger was a very influential physicist that made many scientific discoveries involving wave mechanics and various contributions pertaining to quantum theory (Ã¢â¬Å"ErwinÃ¢â¬ ). SchrÃ ¶dingerÃ¢â¬â¢s life commenced August 12, 1887 in Vienna, Austria, and from there he led a very noteworthy childhood (Abbott 145). Throughout ErwinÃ¢â¬â¢s life, he conducted an exponential amount of research, experiments, and scientific discoveries that benefited society (Ã¢â¬Å"StuewerÃ¢â¬ ). SchrÃ ¶dingerÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, scientific contributions
Friday, December 20, 2019
Why Do We Need Solar Energy? With the worlds natural resources depleting rapidly, humans must find a way to compensate. This society has milked oil, coal, gasoline, lead, uranium, and many other of these reservoirs in our Earth for hundreds of years and much has been done. Asphalt was used for our roads and highways, coal was originally used for heat before there was oil, and even water was used as a form of electricity on many rural farms. Luckily, more companies around the world are waking up to the fact that these resources will not be around forever, and that in the near future, other forms of energy will take heed. Solar energy, or energy powered by the sun, is one of the most promising. Since the suns rays create so muchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦At the American University of Armenia, the largest solar energy project in the Commonwealth of Independent States has developed a heating/cooling system powered by solar panels on the roof of the main building at the university. The system is unusually large in number of solar panels, 32, and unique for its heating and cooling system. In Taiwan, the first 2.64 Mw wind farm was installed and operated successfully in November of 2000. Also, a number of pig farms were developed with biogas power generators, capable of generating around 23 megawatts. In the African nation of Ghana, some 1,780 homes, 42 school, 6 clinics, 24 street-lighting systems, and a water pumping machine are benefiting from Ghanas solar energy project. The Minister of Energy got the word out that this form of energy would promote growth of agriculture-based industries, create employment, and increase the productivity and wealth for people in rural areas. Maybe the most exciting discovery recently occurred in Australia. Scientists there used special titanium oxide ceramics that use sun to actually split water to produce hydrogen fuel. This clean and almost unlimited energy supply will become complete hopefully within the next decade. These are just four o f countless new ways people are working together for the sake of our environment. Furthermore, industries have boomed from these non-renewableShow MoreRelatedEssay on Why Do We Need Solar Energy?1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Why Do We Need Solar Energy? nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;With the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resources depleting rapidly, humans must find a way to compensate. This society has milked oil, coal, gasoline, lead, uranium, and many other of these reservoirs in our Earth for hundreds of years and much has been done. Asphalt was used for our roads and highways, coal was originally used for heat before there was oil, and even water was used as a form of electricity on many rural farms. Luckily, more companiesRead MoreDeath By The Human Stupidity1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesenvironment. this is why it is necessary to do something about it. Without drastic change in the way the human race interacts with the world, this trend will continue. This is why we need to begin integrating environmentally friendly habits now, so we can begin to repair the damage. Of course, it should be said itÃ¢â¬â¢s not economically possible to completely change the way we behave overnight, but humanity needs to begin slowly moving towards a better way of life. One of the ways to do this would be integratingRead MoreWe All Rely On Some Sort Of Power Source For Our Household1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWe all rely on some sort of power source for our household appliances, devices, lighting and entertainment needs. Sadly, the electricity used in the majority of our homes are powered by something dangerous, fossil fuels. Fossil fuels release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and gradually disrupts nature and pollutes the air. Now imagine a reliable alternative source of energy that can fix this issue. Solar energy is the answer. We cannot rev erse the devastating damages caused by fossil fuelsRead MoreThe Importance Of Marketing In The Saudi Arabia Market1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Today we are honored to have you all; members, employees, clients and companies, to launch our product and advertise for it in the Saudi Arabia market. Just before getting started, I want to welcome special guests from Saudi Arabia; a dear country, who are participating in this gathering. It is not a surprise from business men who were born in a country that thrives for innovation and advancement, to cross the ocean and bare the fatigue of this long travel to be with us today. Thanks for yourRead MoreFossil Fuels Are Bad For Our Environment889 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesenvironment, and in a economy that is struggling, there is no point in pouring billions of dollars a year into an energy source that is killing our other resources. This kind of spending and reckless destruction of our environment will eventually have to stop. 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We are very certain that we have all heard about the terms fossilRead MoreEthanol Essay782 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdiversify our energy supply? In recent months, the new focus is the investment in research and development of alternative or renewable energy. Google has announced its plans to spend tens of millions of dollars in 2008 on the project known as Renewable Energy Cheaper than Coal (Reuters, 2007). The U.S. government also has put in place two programs called, Solar Energy Technologies Program and The Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. These programs will research, develop and organize solar and windRead MoreThe United States Uses Fossil Fuels For 81 Percent Of Its998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfuels for 81 percent of its the total energy. It is estimated that the world will use all of the fossil fuels sometime in the next 50-100 years. Either we need to find a way of slowing down the use of fossil fuels or we need to convert to a new source of energy. Renewable energy is the most viable option because we cannot run out of renewable energy. The convergence of Las Vegas and Google are examples of why, as a country , we need to use more renewable energy. The United States is the second biggest
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Introduction If an industry has decided to conquer the international market, there are many choices that will be opened. These options may include the cost, risk and the degree of control that the company will encounter ( 2001). In entering an international business, it is important that the management of the company should be able to choose a marketing entry strategy so as to make the company be more competitive ( 1986). Primarily, the purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the marketing entry mode that British Petroleum may use to enter the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) market. In this manner, the discussion of the current situation of Hong Kong will be analyse as well as the international management approach that can be used by the company to sustain competitiveness within the international market. Overview of the Company British Petroleum known today as BP Amoco is a petroleum industry based in London. We will write a custom essay sample on International Management: Market Entry or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is recognized as one of the top four oil and petroleum companies throughout the world. The company started in 1901when William Knox DÃ¢â¬â¢Arcy was given the permission by the Shah of Persia to explore the land for oil and founded one in May 1908. Because of this discovery, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company was established so as to expose these findings. The company has grown gradually because of this as World War I is happening; the British Government shows intense interest to the company which became the source of fuel oil of Royal Navy during WWI. In 1917, the war gives permission to the British Government to have full control of the company and named it British Petroleum ( 2006). The company has continued to become one of the largest oil companies in Europe and because the company wanted to expand its market, BP merged wit the American Oil Company (AMOCO). The strategies used by the management have been the major factors for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. In addition, the ability to include international marketing has made the company become one of the most successful oil companies all over the world. Today, the company operated in more than 100 states in 6 continents. The main goal of this company is to drill and find oil. The major activities of BP Amoco is exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil; refining or decontamination, marketing, supply and transportation and production and marketing or petrochemicals. In addition, the company also engaged itself in solar power. The strategic use technology and strategic management can be considered as a factor for this achievement. The company also acquires (Arco) and has been able to launch a combined global branding. The company offers products and services which are divided into three categories; on the roads which include fuels and stations, fuel cards, Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), lubricants, roadside assistance and route planners, for the home which consists of products like LPG, online store and solar and renewable; and for business which include air BP, Bitumen, BP Marine, BP open books, BP shipping, petrochemicals, power, natural gas, lubricants Liquified natural gas (LNG) and LPG, fuels, fuel cards and solar and renewable. In order to easily reach their customers, BP also uses the internet through its website ( 2006). Analysis of the Choice of Foreign Market In the business arena, it is important that an entrepreneur must be knowledgeable about the different marketing strategies that must be utilised in order to make the business prolong its competitiveness and stay in the marketing world, locally and internationally. The management of an enterprise that are considering entry into a foreign market must be able to make decisions focusing on uncertain and changeable circumstances that might be faced ( 1997). To successfully enter international market scene, it is important that the management should determine which country to choose ( 1997, 1992). It is a very crucial factor because the economic status of such country will be one of the major factors that can help boost the competitive advantage of a Firm BP Amoco chooses Hong Kong even though there are lots of competitors to outgrow, because of the economic status of the country. Since the country has a positive vision regarding oil and natural gas products and other chemicals, BP can use this as an instrument to expose its products in the population of China ( 1997) and show the quality of products and services they offer. Various Environments When a firm decides to expand its venture to international market, t faces different challenges that need to be given emphasis (, 1999). One of the most important considerations that should be given enough attention by the management of any industry like oil industries is the different environmental factors that affect the firm as a whole (1980). BP operates in a complex and more competitive environment. This is because only few countr ies can able to produce oils and natural gases. In this manner, the competition to produce and provide products and services for different consumers is demanded not only in the domestic arena but most especially to the international market ( 1995). The environment in which oil industries belong is a kind that must be given enough consideration in order for the company to be recognised in the whole world. Factors, such as consumer segments, political, economic and technological factors ( 2000) are few of environmental aspects, needed to be determined by BP as it enters an international market. In Hong Kong, it can be said that the country has a strong political system. This means, the British Petroleum should be able to adhere to the political status of Hong Kong in terms of business operations. Moreover, the economic status of the country is also considered as strong since it allows foreign investments to enter the PRC market. And since the needs of oil and other oil products is in demand with, it can be said that the market will be able to consider BP as an important industry that will provide quality oil products and services. In this regard, BP entry to Hong Kong is plausible and that with strategic marketing entry the company may ensure growth in this nation. In terms of technological aspects, the country has been able to adapt modern technologies to ensure growth and development within its territorial boundaries. This means that, Hong Kong is a potential international market for British Petroleum. Competitive Strategies As one of the worlds biggest oil and petrochemical companies, British Petroleum (BP) has international operations in over 70 countries with 233 billion revenues, and 103700 employees. It focuses on oil and gas exploration and production, the supplying of petroleum products, and the manufacturing and marketing of chemicals. Currently BP owns five recognized brands worldwide which include BP, am/pm, ARCO, Aral and Castrol. ( 2005) With the rapid change of the external environment, BP has regarded itself as a modern, global, decentralized and learning corporation that must learn to be adapted and responsive accordingly ( 1997. ) The leaders of BP knew that to maintain BPs competitive advantages and its leader position, it is no more relies on their experiences but the technical skills, political and operational knowledge because oil may be found in more challenging environment and even will be replaced by alternatives, such as hydrogen and solar, in the future. , BPs CEO, has claimed that learning is the foundation stone of BP to adapt to change. To identify the opportunities that their competitors may not see, BP has to create and distribute knowledge throughout the organization, thus learn faster and exploit faster than their competitors. ( 1997; 2000) Similarly, Mr , head of BPs information technology architecture and strategy, claimed BP needs to know what it knows, learn what it needs to learn and apply that knowledge as quickly as possible for sustainable competitive advantage, ( 1998) Thus, the vision of BP is to be an integrated world-class, agile learning organization ( 1998). Party of the business strategy of BP is its effective entry to international market which makes the company become more recognized in the business arena. In addition, the company is able to seek improvement in its business operation and tries to provide innovative products for the target market ( 1996). As mentioned, the company divided its market into three categories which helps them in knowing what the needs of their customers in specific categories are. Motivations for Market Entry Entering a new market is a complex decision which must be given focus and attention. With the goal of establishing a business that would be recognized and patronized by consumers, more and more entrepreneurs are trying to enter the market swiftly. There are different motivations for market entry (, 1990). One of the motivational factors to enter an international market is the chance given by this investment to make the company become more competitive among its rivals. It can be said that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s an industry becomes a multinational company, there is an implication that such company has been able to establish a competitive position in the marketplace not only in the local but most especially to the global arena. Marketing entry is also capable in making a certain business enhance and expand its business portfolio. In line with BP, the company enters an international market (Hong Kong) in order to establish a company that would be powerful not only in Europe but in different continents as well. Modes of market entry In the market arena, it is important that a business firm or company should be able to include global competitiveness in their marketing strategy. The paradox of globalisation has always been one of the great influences for a company to lasts. In order to compete globally or internationally, the management of a firm should be able to choose a mode of market entry that will help them to achieve their goal. All of these modes involve resource commitments (albeit at varying levels); firms initial choices of a particular mode are difficult to change without considerable loss of time and money ( 1987). Entry mode selection is therefore, a very important, if not a critical, strategic decision. The four most common modes of foreign market entry are exporting, licensing, and joint venture and solve venture. Collaborative venture is the term used when a business company merged to other company for the purpose of entering the international market. This is an alternative mode of exploiting a particular asset such as retail and potential branch network to form an arrangement with an established supplier of the product. Collaborative ventures both jointly owned and affiliate company arrangements are known to be an obvious ways of spreading risks and acquiring access to expertise ( 1994). Here, the collaborative arrangements with an existing market participants also means that the entrant can transfer resources into the industry without necessary disturbing that industryÃ¢â¬â¢s current competitive structure too much ( 1993). It is a mutual understanding between the entrant and the existing firm to collaboratively work with each other for the expansion of the business portfolio of each company (1987; 1987). BP mode of market entry to Hong Kong is through a joint venture to either CNPC or Sinopec or Asiatic Petroleum Company. The joint venture mode is preferred by larger and more multinational firms. By having a venture with other bigger and competitive oil companies which are currently operating in Hong Kong or in China, British Petroleum products may be known in the HK market. An international joint venture is a distinct enterprise or multi-organizational agreement, created as an alliance between two or more parents organizations working across country borders in designing and managing the venture ( 1996). In order to do so, the company must ensure that the company is willing to have a joint venture with BP. n addition, BP may also use a third party stakeholder to help them in designing and implementing joint venture with an existing petroleum and oil industry in Hong Kong. For instance, banks, government agencies, union officials, suppliers, distributors and legal officials often make critical contributions in designing-implementing parts of an international joint venture. Enterprises with little prior experience in setting-up joint venture almost always underestimate the impact of third party involvement ( 1989). Conclusion International marketing is a complex process. In order to successfully enter the foreign market the company must see to it that all their resources are ready to face the risks of such investment. In addition, the company must be able to identify different factors that may affect the entry of the company to the marketplace. Analysis shows that BP must be able to utilize a strategy which enables the company to gain competitive advantage both in local and foreign market. Since, Hong Kong accepts foreign investment; BP must be able to provide appropriate agreements to adhere to the current situation of Hong Kong market. Analysis also shows that the economic status of HK is an indication that BP may be able to easily provide its products and services to different segments of the market. The entry of BP to Hong Kong can also be considered as beneficial for both the company and the country. In terms of strategic approach for international market entry, BP had used standardization to streamline its business portfolios in China. The company had emphasised the strategic use of technology, strategic management system and a strong and competitive organisational structure as the main reason why it has become successful in its venture of providing its products and services to China. In the analysis, the only recommendation is, BP must continue to strategically and effectively decide on different investments that would enhance its business performance both in the local and international market. Herein, the merging and acquisitions of different companies must be continued to provide innovative products and services in terms of oils, gases, and petrochemicals in the future. In addition, the company must continuously integrate its business strategy and information technology. It can be concluded that the right choice of market entry mode along with the concept of strategic management and other efficient marketing approach, can make a company succeed in achieving its goal of providing quality products with their target market. However, decisions should be made strategic also. This means, that the company should have the ability to decide which among the market entry mode can be helpful to the company itself and suitable for the international market that the company will consider.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Assume that you work in a multinational corporation (MNC). As the Head of HR you have been given the task to prepare a Business Report to critically review and evaluate the current trends and challenges affecting HRM internationally. You have to critically analyse how these challenges impact on the future HRM practices for your MNC. Answer: Introduction With the effect of globalization and liberalization, the importance of opening MNCs came into existence. A multinational organization is one which works internationally in the global market and has a wide diversified dimension of working. The MNCs also make use of upfront technology to create differentiation in the market. Thus, with the initiation of MNCs the global and economic business has taken an effective change and developed with time (Al Ariss, Sidani, 2016). In order to manage the development, the company needs to manage their human resource activities so that they sustain on global. As it is known that on a global level the companies earn good profits similarly if taken the wrong step they can adversely affect the current state of the business. Further, in the competitive environment, it is primary objective of the business to keep their resources intact so that the managers can exercise their core business activities properly. As globalization opens up way for profitable business, so it is mandatory for the organization to manage the human resource activities internationally. The HR manager faces many human resource issues daily which can affect the growth of the organization; it is their duty to solve the problems and overcome the challenges faced them for the brighter future of the organization (Armstrong, Taylor, 2014). Further, the report discusses the key human resources trends and challenges occurring in the global business which is affecting the state of the business (positively or negatively). The purpose of this report is to analyze the current trends and challenges in managing human resource internationally and its impact on business; it also gives recommendation with the help of which an HR manager can sustain the growth of the business by managing the trends and challenges. Trends and challenges faces by MNC's in managing human resource internationally The fact is true that the world is now more turning into an international business which drives economic growth for all the countries worldwide. The trends which are constantly seen are in the areas like, technology, education, employees, economies, and communication etc. the movement of global business leads to high degree of economic change and a growing number of participants in the business. Also, complexity and uncertainty increased with the effect. Numerous traditional strategies shifted with the aid of international initialization of business process (Bhatti, Ahsan, 2016). The trends which the market has seen in the managing human resources with time is that there has been a shift in the age group of the labor force working for the international companies, also the expatriates becoming more culture oriented and working towards the benefits of the society. Another remarkable trend which shall be noticed is the growth in the fields of education and technology. These both aspects are getting more diverse due to which any activities which are held in the business are changing its face (Brewster, et. al., 2016). Another key trend on which the international business is focusing now days is the mobility of resources. It is very important for the business to carry on the mobility function effectively as it decides the motivation level of the employees in organizations. All the factors which are mentioned above have a great influence on the activities of the business, thus they shall be adequately taken care and managed in an organization to gain competitive ed ge in the global market (Cascio, Boudreau, 2016). Further, they key trends and challenges are discussed below: Technology Technology is a tool with the aid of which business process implement innovation in their organization. Technology is a rapidly changing aspect which provides benefits to the organization. In the global business, in order to sustain in the market, it is important for business to gain the competitive edge in the market. Competitive edge can be only achieved through the use of technological advancement techniques. The technology implementation helps the organization to change the employment market (Clark, et. al., 2016); the structure in which the workforce in prevailing is a trending concept which is constantly changing with the changing era. Thus technology is regarded as one of the trends in the international human resource management. Further, it shall be noticed that of technology is not applied adequately then it adversely the state of the organization so in this way it can act as a challenge for the organization (Cooke, Veen, Wood, 2017). Further talking about the challenge it shall be considered that the power of IT is replacing the jobs of normal people and acting as a permanent loss of jobs in the middle tier and at the first job entry level. Also, the global business is facing issue in managing the business which has narrow specific skills implemented in them. Apart from that, the fast-changing technology is making it difficult for some companies to adopt the new and efficient due to which their business process is becoming outdated. So, one of the challenge due to new trend in technology is that this process many times creates difficulty for the companies to adopt them in their process and re-educate that technology to the employees of the company (Dalton, Bingham, 2017). This many times acts as a burden for them to implement such changes in their management system. Apart from that another challenge which the company gets to face with the advancement of technology is that it eliminates the jobs of many people an d makes the personnel compact. As with the use of such technology major work which used be one by people eliminates itself due to which some people tend to lose their jobs (Dickmann, Brewster, Sparrow, 2016). Education Education is considered as one of the positive factors which assist the growth of an organization. But sometimes it may acts as a challenge for the global business process. Education helps the multinational companies to provide solutions to the demographic human resources caused by the company; it acts as both opportunity and threat to the company if no used wisely. Talking about the education acting as a threat to the organization, the fact that shall be noted is that just like technology; education is an ongoing process, which is changing every day (Farndale, et. al., 2017). So, there is no boundation to the process of acquiring education, that if a person acquires a limit of education then they are qualified to do certain job. Education is a diverse field which keeps on changing, along with which another challenge relating to education is difference in teaching style. It refers to the way or process in which people attain education, as in an MNC most of the people who are employed for the job are expatriate which symbolizes that their place from which obtained education was also different. So difference in teaching style can lead to differences in the management of the company as well. Summarizing to the above statement it shall be said that difference in education can lead to cultural differences as well. All formal and professional people employed in the company would have their point of difference of opinions due to difference in their teachings (Kaufman, 2016). Apart from that talking about the workplace learning, it shall be noted that now the workplace learning has developed into a wider context due to which it becomes difficult for expatriates to adopt the changes accordingly. The type of qualification provided in different institution is different and the work offered in an organization is different. So, if the employee's mental skills are adequately developed according to the profile of the work then it can act as a problem of the organization (Kramar, 2014). Mobility Lastly talking about mobility in international human resource management, it relates to the mobility of resources in a multinational corporation. Elaborating on the statement, this aspect includes the promotion, demotion, and transfer of human resource in an organization. It is mandatory for the organization to satisfy its employees with the kind of services they provide. For instance, if a regional employee of US is transferred to Australia for their future job period, approval of the employees is necessary because if the employee is not satisfied with such decision of the company then it can adversely affect the state of the company in global business (Reiche, Mendenhall, Stahl, 2016). Thus, it is a crucial decision which the company needs to take with the acceptance of the employees of the organization. Thus, if the decision of mobility is not taken adequately in an organization then can create problem for the company in managing human of the organization. Apart from that, the co mpany needs to properly take the decision hat which staff needs to go at the different outlet of the company who needs to stay in the same office (Renwick, Redman, Maguire, 2013). Motivation of the employees, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction are the most important aspects due to which a person performs their job effectively and efficiently. So, if an employee is transferred to another unit of the organization then the job satisfaction level can decrease which can affect the state of the organization. Apart from that the cultural difference Impact to IHRM issues on the company The human resource activities are directly connected to the business function. So any change in such activities can give a great impact on the growth of the business in international context. Further, the impact of human resource activities on the multinational corporations is discussed below. Talking about the impact of technological advancement on the growth of business is that, with this effect, the employees of the company started getting demotivated as they were unable to understand the technological changes happening in the internal management of the company. The elder generation people employed in the company found it difficult to cope up with the technology coming from different parts of the world (Paill, et. al., 2014). Apart from that, the expatriate is unable to make them understand regarding the changes. The normal jobs of the people were also replaced with this effect. Although I acted as an advantage for the company on the same hand this process also depleted the human resource management of the company. further in addition to it, another way in which technology affect the human resource managerial activities is that, as this process depleted in the number of employees working in an organization and the people who had routine jobs in their business, due to th is loss of jobs a bad impression of company shall prevail in the market. As the ex-employees of the company would talk about the furious technological growth and the less job security chances of the employees in the company, ten would lead to creating a bad image of the company in the market (Sheehan, 2014). Another aspect which affected the international human resource activities in an organization is education. This aspect talks about the culture difference prevailing in the employees of the company, all have taken their lessons from different institutions due to which there is a difference in thinking and applicability of theories in an organization (Wilkinson, Wood, 2017). Due to which many times employees clashes in the organization as all people have their different point of opinions. Another problem in the organization comes when newly skilled employee talks about some theories which the experienced employees of the company are unable to understand as there are changes in the courses. Due to this process, some employees of the company might feel distressed which can act as an issue of the company. Education opens the mind of people and it also improves the capacity to understand things. Thus, some people in the organization tend to understand and respond to workplace activities i n a better way while others might not due to which communication gap can occur in the management process (Wilton, 2016). Lastly, mobility of employees which mainly includes transfers and promotions works as a huge factor for motivation and demotivation among employees. As if transfer of employees is with their will and consent then it will adequately respond to the unit of the company otherwise vice versa. The mobility of human resource affects two units of the same organization (Sekiguchi, Froese, Iguchi, 2016). Conclusion Thus, in the limelight of above mentioned events, the fact that shall be noted is that in a multinational corporate there are many human resource management issues which a business process faces in their day to day activity. Apart from that, it is the duty of the HR manager to satisfy the requirements of the employees of the organization along with the objectives of the company to sustain the growth in global environment. Also if the company will not prioritize such issues, and then it can negatively affect their growth in global context. Apart from that, it is very important for a human resource manager to actively look after the issues of all the employees and resolve them so that future growth is sustained (Nickson, 2013). So, in order to attain the global competitive edge the human resource manager needs to adequately look after such issues and its impact on the business in economic terms. Thus the above mentioned analysis evaluates the trends and challenges faced by an MNC, impact on the business globally and recommendation with the aid of which ne can avoid such problems. Recommendation So after look at the above mention analysis of the key trends and issues faced by a multinational corporation, a few recommendations that shall be noted are that firstly the human resource managers shall actively participate in all the activities relating to the human resource of the company. Secondly, the manager shall look after the mobility of the employees of the organization; they shall look for the consent of employees who wish to go to the different unit of the company for expansion purposes. Also, they shall promote the employee or provide them monetary benefits if they approve for transfer. This will help the company to keep the employees motivated and satisfied in their job. Another way in which company can excel the international human resource management that they shall provide training sessions to all the employees of the organization so the come up front to the newly established technology and education in the market. This will help them to develop and adopt different methodologies which will help them to sustain their personal future growth. Employees being the most important asset of the organization need to be satisfied with the environment in which they are working, therefore the company shall organization regular cross-cultural training programs so as to assist the growth of the employees of the organization. Apart from that such events shall be held on a larger scale so that all the employees connected with the working of the organization get to know each and share each other feeling. This will help they create informal groups in the organization which will eliminate the problem of communication or generation gap. Lastly, the company shall international try to manage the economic goals with the benefits of the employees of the organization as well so that competitive advantage is gained by the company. 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